Journal of Bionic Memory http://jbionicmemory.com/index.php/jbm Bionic, Memory, Medicine, artificial body parts and implants, interface with living tissues, Brain to Machine Interface, Cochlear Implant and Hearing Aids, Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Artificial Heart, Diaphragm Stimulator, Artificial Arm, Artificial Leg, Artificial Knee, Artificial Foot, Artificial Skin, Bladder Stimulator, Drug Delivery, Spinal Fusion Hardware, Heart Pacemaker and Defibrillator, Breast Implants, Traumatic Fracture Repair, Bionic Eye, Deep Brain Stimulation , RFID Tag, and Bionic Hand Prof. Dr. Hulya Ozturk en-US Journal of Bionic Memory 2791-6332 Auditory brainstem implant technology and use: Auditory implants http://jbionicmemory.com/index.php/jbm/article/view/17 <p>Cochlear implant (CI) technology is used in the treatment of deep sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, an intact cochlea and an intact cochlear nerve are needed for CI applications. CI does not help in pathologies that may occur in these regions, and it is necessary to ensure the continuity of auditory conduction by direct stimulation of the cochlear nuclei. The method developed to ensure this auditory continuity is auditory brainstem implant (ABI) applications. In short, the ABI functions without the cochlea and the cochlear nerve. It does not need these structures. According to CI practices, postoperative gains are unfortunately not at the desired level. Auditory information can be helpful in lip-reading, although its benefits on speech perception are generally limited. In addition, ABI applications enable environmental sounds to be heard even if they are not fully perceived, and it is known to be beneficial on quality of life.</p> Akif Gunes Copyright (c) 2022 Akif Gunes https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 2 1 1 6 Evaluation of near accommodation in type 1 diabetic patients http://jbionicmemory.com/index.php/jbm/article/view/18 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate accommodation in type 1 diabetic patients by PowerRef3 in our study. The PowerRef 3 can be used in studying the near triad of accommodation, vergence and pupil responses in healthy and clinical populations.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The accommodation of 14 patients (mean age: 33.14 ± 10.27) with type 1 diabetes and 16 control subjects (mean age: 35.81 ± 5.88) were measured by PowerRef3 at 30 cm with a standard accommodation target. The metabolic status of the diabetic patients and accommodation were compared with those of control subjects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean accommodation, spherical equivalents and age was not significantly different between diabetic and control subjects. The mean duration of diabetes was 13 ± 5.7 years (min: 7, max: 27). The mean accommodation was not significantly correlated with duration of diabetes and glycated hemoglobin levels, but it was significantly correlated with the spherical equivalents (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) and weakly correlated other metabolic parameters (fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The accommodation of type 1 diabetes patients at pre-presbyopic ages without diabetic retinopathy was similar to control subjects with PowerRef 3 measurements. This may reflect that good diabetes control, which will prevent retinopathy, may prevent the decrease in accommodation in type 1 diabetes patients.</p> Sema Yuzbasiıoglu Fatma Yulek Nagihan Ugurlu Oya Topaloglu Didem Ozdemir Reyhan Ersoy Bekir Cakir Copyright (c) 2022 Sema Yuzbasiıoglu, Fatma Yulek, Nagihan Ugurlu, Oya Topaloglu, Didem Ozdemir, Reyhan Ersoy, Bekir Cakir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 2 1 7 12 Evaluation of cannulated screw fixation configurations in femoral neck fractures by biomechanical studies: A systematic review http://jbionicmemory.com/index.php/jbm/article/view/19 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate the cannulated screw fixation methods used in the treatment of femoral neck fractures with a systematic review.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> PubMed Central, Web of Science, OVID Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify relevant studies published until December 2021 with English language restriction. Studies were selected on the basis of the following inclusion criteria: biomechanical study of femoral neck fractures and the use of multiple screw fixation of the fracture.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 10 studies were included in the systematic review. Five studies were conducted using cadavers and five studies using sawbones. Multiple cannulated screw fixation, fully threaded cannulated screw fixation, cannulated screw fixation perpendicular to the calcar, and fixation performed in a wider area have various advantages. During the mechanical tests, axial loading measuring device values, axial failure displacement, load to failure values, and axial loading values were measured for each operation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There are various surgical techniques and biomedical materials for the detection of femoral neck fractures. In addition, each cannulated screw treatment configuration has advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the most appropriate treatment configuration should be selected, taking into account the experience of the surgeon and the fracture types.</p> Emre Arikan Tacettin Ayanoglu Copyright (c) 2022 Emre Arikan, Tacettin Ayanoglu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-06 2022-02-06 2 1 13 23 The neuro-inflammation and excitotoxicity in perinatal brain injury: The emerging role of brain mast cells http://jbionicmemory.com/index.php/jbm/article/view/21 <p>Perinatal brain injury is a serious neurodevelopmental problem that can be occurred in preterm and term newborn infants. It is well established that neuro-inflammation is implicated in the pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury. The excitotoxicity is considered as a common molecular mechanism of perinatal brain injury. These insults are capable of leading to neuro-inflammation, but however neuro-inflammation is also able to induce the excitotoxicity in the developing brain. Thus, neuro-inflammation is both a cause and a consequence of excitotoxicity resulting in the brain damages during perinatal period. Excessive glutamate accumulation in the synaptic cleft in the brain is a prominent mechanism in the excitotoxicity while vasoactive and pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine, prostaglandins, <em>interleukin 1</em><em><strong> (</strong></em>IL-1) β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α released from brain-resident immune cells play a major role in neuro-inflammation that lead to the brain damages. Although the role of brain-resident microglial cells has been well documented in these neuro-inflammation processes, evidence for the role of brain mast cells (BMCs) has recently begun to emerge. Growing evidence indicates that brain mast cells are first responders of inflammatory insults in the developing brain and their activation is involved in induced brain injury.</p> <p>We have recently demonstrated that ibotenate-induced excitotoxicity leads to the activation of brain mast cells in a model of ibotenate-induced brain injury in newborn rats. Thus, in this review we point out the current knowledge on the bidirectional role of brain mast cells in neuro-inflammation and excitotoxicity underlying perinatal brain injury.</p> Yasemin Baranoglu Kilinc Mustafa Dilek Mervan Bekdas Erkan Kilinc Copyright (c) 2022 Yasemin Baranoglu Kilinc, Mustafa Dilek, Mervan Bekdas, Erkan Kilinc https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-26 2022-02-26 2 1 24 36 Bionic hand: A brief review http://jbionicmemory.com/index.php/jbm/article/view/25 <p>The hand is one of the most crucial organs in the human body. Hand loss causes the loss of functionality in daily and work life and psychological disorders for the patients. Hand transplantation is best option to gain most of the hand function. However, the applicability of this option is limited since the side effects and the need for tissue compatibility. Electromechanical hand prosthesis also called bionic hand is an alternative option to hand transplantation. This study presents a quick review of bionic hand technology.</p> Alper Bayrak Erdal Bekiroglu Copyright (c) 2022 Alper Bayrak, Erdal Bekiroglu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-03-24 2022-03-24 2 1 37 43