Leadless and symbiotic cardiac pacemakers; as an alternative to conventional pacemakers
Keywords:Heart, cardiac surgical procedures, instrumentation, cardiac pacemaker, leadless, symbiotic
There have been considerable advancements in technology since the first permanent pacemaker was implanted in 1960. A subcutaneous generator and battery module are connected to one or more endocardial leads in the conventional pacemaker implantation. Despite their proven efficiency, traditional permanent pacemakers have a number of drawbacks their use has been linked to potential complications during implantation procedure and also during follow-up period; among the most notable ones are lead malfunction, limited battery life, and device-related infections. Therefore, there had been tremendous efforts to avoid such complications and to increase battery life. In this Review, we explore new electronic devices, leadless pacemaker systems and symbiotic cardiac pacemakers, designed to avoid these current limitations.
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Copyright (c) 2021 Mehmet Cosgun, Yilmaz Gunes, Ibrahin Donmez
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.